1. Consider the following statements about Buddhism:
1.It laid the foundation of image worship in India.
2.It taught the people to judge things on merit rather than taking them for granted.
3.It led to the establishment of residential universities such as Nalanda, Vikramshila, Vallabhi & Taxila
Which of the above is/are correct:
(a) 2 & 3 only (b) 1 & 3 only
(c) 1 & 2 only (d) All of the above
2.Which of the following sections of the Brahmanical society extended generous support to both Mahavira and Gautam Buddha in a view to improve their position in the society?
(a) Brahmanas (b) Kshatriyas
(c) Vaisyas (d) Sudras
3.Consider the following Statements:
1.Jainism does not deny the existence of Gods and grants Gods an important part in the Universal Scheme.
2.Jainism condemns the Varna system as men are creatures of God, and can’t be bounded by in-human practices.
Which of the following statement(s) is\are incorrect?
(a) only 1 (b) only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
4.With reference to ancient Jainism, which one of following statement is correct?
1.Jainism was spread in south India under the leadership of Sthalabahu
2.The jainas who remained under the leadership of bhadrabahu were called shvetambaras after the council held a patliputra
3.Jainism enjoyed the patronage of kalinga king kharavela in the first century BC
4.In the intial stage of Jainism,the jainas worshipped images unlike Buddhist
Which of the following statement(s) is\are true?
(a) only 2 (b) only 3
(c) Both 1 and 4 (d) Both 2 and 4
5.In which language did Buddha preach?
(a) Pali (b) Prakrit
(c) Brahmi (d) Sanskrit
6.The original teachings of Mahavira are contained in which of the following texts?
(a) 12 Angas (b) 14 Purvas
(c) Tripitakas (d) Jatakas
7.In Buddhism ,what does patimokkha stand for?
(a) A description of Mahayana Buddhism
(b) A description of Hinayana Buddhism
(c) The rules of Sangha
(d) The question of king Menander
8.Who of the following was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha?
(b) Chandragupta mourya
9.Who was the president of the first Buddhist council held at Rajgriha ?
10.The earliest Buddhist literature which deal with the stories of the various birth of Buddha are
(a) Vinaya pitakas
(b) Sutta pitakas
(c) Abhidhamma pitakas
ANSWER WITH EXPLANATION:
2- C Vaisyas were ranked third in the Brahmanical society of Vedic period and they looked for some religion which would improve their position. They found religions propagated by Mahavira and Gautama Buddha most suitable for them and this is why they extended their generous support to them. The merchants, called the setthis, made handsome gifts to Gautama Buddha and his disciples. There were several reasons for it.
First, Jainism and Buddhism in the initial stage did not attach any importance to the existing Varna system.
Second, they preached the gospel of non-violence, which would put an end to wars between different kingdoms and consequently promote trade and commerce.
Third, the Brahmanical law-books, called the Dharmasutras, decried lending money on interest. A person who lived on interest was condemned by them. Therefore the Vaisyas, who lent money on account of growing trade and commerce, were not held in esteem and were eager to improve their social status.
Exp: 1. Jainism does not deny the existence of Gods but refuses to give Gods any important part in the Universal Scheme.
2. Jainism does not condemn the Varna System.
Major reason behind thriving of Buddhism was patronage of great kings like Ajatshatru, Ashoka and Kanishka. Discuss the factors that helped Buddhism to travel from India to east and South Asia?
Ans:- Though Buddhism born during the period of 6th century B.C. but it was highly embraced under patronage of different kings of different periods especially under Ajatsatru, Ashoka and Kanishka. In fact, three Buddhist councils were held under these three rulers. 1st Buddhist Council was conducted under patronage of Ajatashatru. Ajatashatru shared the relics of Buddha. He also renovated 18 Buddhist monasteries. This council was presided by Mahakasyapa. In this council, Ananda recited Sutta pitaka and Upali recited Vinaya Pitaka. Sutta Pitaka contains basic principles of Buddhism and Vinaya Pitaka contains laws for monks.
3rd Buddhist Council was held under patronage of Ashoka the Great. Ashoka embraced Buddhism. He followed the three principle elements of Buddhism – Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha and propagated all over his empire. He spread Buddhism into central Asia, West Asia and Sri Lanka. During his time use of Pali language spread Buddhism – sayings and teachings of Buddha, rules to be observed by members and philosophical exposition of Dharma. 4 th Buddhist council was held under patronage of Kanishka. During his time Gandhara style of Buddhist art evolved and grown considerably.
Factors that helped spread of Buddhism:
Buddha teachings spread over centuries first to Southeast Asia, then through central Asia to China and rest of East Asia and finally to Tibet. It developed in these regions because of local interest in Buddhist beliefs and ethics.
It Spread primarily due to influence of powerful rulers who had adopted and supported Buddhism himself. In the 3 rd century B.C. emperor Ashoka greatly strengthened Buddhism by his support and sent Buddhist missionaries as far as Syria.
Buddhism is brought into Sri Lanka by Mahendra and Sanghmitra son and daughter of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka; it might have found its way into Thailand about the same time. Sri Lanka was converted to Buddhism in the 3rd century B.C. After taking up residence in Sri Lanka, the Indian Buddhist scholar Buddhaghosa produced some of Theravada Buddhism.
Most important scholastic writings.
• 1153-86 BCE: Sinhalese monks from Sri Lanka takes Buddhism to Burma. In the 7th century Buddhism entered Tibet, where it has flourished, drawing its philosophical influences mainly from the Madhyamika, and its practices from the Tantra.
• About the 1st cent. A.D. Buddhism entered China along trade routes from central
Asia. Buddhism began to enter China via the Silk Road. In the 3rd and 4th century
Buddhist concepts were interpreted by analogy with indigenous ideas, mainly Taoist,
but the work of the great translators Kumarajiva and Hsüan-tsang provided the basis
for better understanding of Buddhist concepts.
From China and Korea, Buddhism came to Japan. Influence of Greek rulers spread it into central Asia Art forms of different periods of different styles helped in spreading Buddhism